Judgment and Decision Making

Judgment and Decision Making
[Instructor Name]
[Class and Section Number]
Bounded Rationality –
Cognitive limitations
prevent humans from
being fully rational
Biases – Mistakes that
influence judgment
What is a Rational Decision?
What is a Rational Decision?
Rational Decision Making
 Define the problem
 Identify criteria necessary
to judge
 Weigh the criteria
 Generate alternatives
 Rate each alternative
 Compute optimal decision
Biases: Overconfidence
Overconfidence – The bias to have greater
confidence in your judgment than is warranted
based on a rational assessment.
Biases: Anchoring
Anchoring – The bias to be affected by an initial
anchor, even if the anchor is arbitrary, and to
insufficiently adjust our judgments away from it.
10 – 100 – 200?
The size of your anchor does matter.
Biases: Framing
Framing – The bias to be systematically affected
by the way in which information is presented.
 Positive or negative?
 Influence of frame
Biases in Decision Making
Contemporary Developments
Bounded Willpower –
We give greater weight to
present concerns over
future ones.
Contemporary Developments
Bounded Self-interest – Our own behavior is
influenced because we care about the outcomes
of others.
Contemporary Developments
Bounded Ethicality – Our
ethics are limited in ways
that we don’t realize.
Bounded Awareness –
There is a broad array of
focusing failures that
affect our judgments.
Fixing Our Decision Making
System 1 System 2
Fixing Our Decision Making
Fixing Our Decision Making
4.25%  99.98%
Image Credits
Slide 1
Photo Credit: koocbor https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4420042160/
Slide 3
Photo Credit: The Shopping Sherpa https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5366688138/
Slide 5
Photo Credit: T|ng~ https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/2046402311/
Slide 6
Photo Credit: jcf https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/2467667896/
Slide 8
Photo Credit: Kimli https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3072707268/
Slide 10
Photo Credit: Old Shoe Woman https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/6023886/
Slide 11
Photo Credit: emilykbecker https://www.flickr.com/photos/emilykbecker/5829019719
Slide 13
Photo Credit: Charles H. Bennett
Slide 15
Photo Credit: Suzi Edwards-Alexander https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3141342119/
Slide 17
Photo Credit: Martin Whitmore
Heart vs Brain
Slide 18
Photo Credit: zampano!!! https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/268351934/
[Instructor Name]
[Class and Section Number]
Introduction to Memory
Working Memory
Working Memory – The ability to hold information
in mind for a brief time and work with it.
Semantic Memory
Semantic Memory – Your storehouse of more or
less permanent knowledge.
Episodic Memory
Episodic Memory –
The ability to
remember the
episodes of your life.
Collective Memory
Collective Memory – The kind of memory that
people in a group share (whether family,
community, schoolmates, citizens of a state or a
Stages of Memory: Encoding
Encoding – The initial experience
of perceiving and learning events.
Recoding – Taking
information from one form
and converting it in a way
that makes sense to us.
Stages of Memory: Storage
Memory Trace (engram) – The change in the nervous
system that represents our experience.
Consolidation – The neural changes that occur over
time to create the memory trace of an experience.
Stages of Memory: Retrieval
Encoding Specificity Principle – The effectiveness of
retrieval cues.
Available – All information stored in memory.
Accessible – The information we are able to retrieve.
Measuring Retrieval
Production Tests
 Generation of studied info
 Example = Free Recall
Recognition Tests
 Selection of studied info from
aggregate info
 Example = Multiple Choice
Putting It All Together
Appendix A: Studying Example
Appendix A: Studying Example
Distributed Practice
Appendix B: Chunking
I am going to show you a series of
numbers. Without writing them down,
remember as many as you can.
4 8 3 7 9 2 5 1 6 1 0 0 1
What do you remember?
483 792 516 1001
What do you remember?
483 792 516 1001
4 8 3 7 9 2 5 1 6 1 0 0 1
What do you remember?
Image Credits
Slide 1
Photo Credit: Lachlan https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/9442454872/
Slide 3
Photo Credit: By Dave Dugdale https://www.flickr.com/photos/davedugdale/5104886707/
Slide 6
Photo Credit: D-Stanley https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/6215204747/
Slide 8
Photo Credit: Alex E. Proimos https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/8582276546/
Slide 8
Photo Credit: Alex E. Proimos https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/8582276546/
Slide 10
Photo Credit: Evert F. Baumgardner – National Archives and Records Administration
Slide 12
Photo Credit: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Texas_flag_map.svg
spitfire  world war 2 fighter
Slide 14
Photo Credit: Steve Slater
Slide 15
Photo Credit: By Geralt http://pixabay.com/en/woman-camera-hand-lens-67127/
Slide 16
Photo Credit:Allan Warren http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Phyllis_Diller_Allan_Warren.jpg
Slide 18
Photo Credit: laura.bell https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3250612239/
Slide 21
Photo Credit: Uploaded by Gabriel VanHelsing
Slide 21
Photo Credit: By Me-Liss-A https://www.flickr.com/photos/lissjasmin/622780860/
Slide 22
Photo Credit: Wilson Dias http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Participantes_do_Enem.jpg
Slide25Photo Credit: Wade
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0Image Credits
Eyewitness Testimony
[Instructor Name]
[Class and Section Number]
What is Eyewitness Testimony?
What is Eyewitness Testimony?
Misinformation effect – Occurs when incorrect
information obtained after an event
contaminates our memory of that event.
Identifying Perpetrators
Factors Increasing Errors
 Poor Vision
 Poor Viewing Conditions
 Stress
 Short Viewing Time
 Delay
 Different Race
Kinds of Memory Biases
Tip-of-the-Tongue Effect Schemata
False Memory
False Memories – Large memory errors in which
events are recalled that never took place.
 Witness Interviews
 Lineup Construction
 Educating Jury Members
 Educating Other Assessors
Image Credits
Slide 1
Photo Credit: Marilyn Church http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/11012/detail/courtroom02.html
Slide 5
Photo Credit: orangesparrow https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5621813850/
Slide 6
Photo Credit: poptech https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5105594032
Slide 6
Photo Credit: poptech https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5104992149/
Slide 6
Photo Credit: poptech https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5104979349/
Slide 8
Photo Credit: https://openclipart.org/detail/19620/yield-road-sign-by-schoolfreeware-19620
Slide 8
Photo Credit: https://openclipart.org/detail/167093/stop-sign-by-davidblyons
Slide 9
Photo Credit: Selena Wilke http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Two-people-talkinglogo.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/en:public_domain
Slide 11
Photo Credit: timsnell https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/11116016075/
Slide 13
Photo Credit: peyri https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/1838873866/
Slide 13
Photo Credit: mnd.ctrl https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/2379177908/
Slide 15
Photo Credit: See-ming Lee 李思明 SML https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/8215656087/
Slide 17
Photo Credit: Karen Arnold http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/viewimage.php?image=72557&picture=scales-of-justice-logo
[Instructor Name]
[Class Section Number]
Defining Intelligence
Intelligence – An individual’
cognitive capability, including the
ability to acquire, process, and
recall information.
Social factors theory
General Intelligence – “g”
Measuring Intelligence
Francis Galton
 Crude measurement
 Factor exploration
Alfred Binet
 Classroom children
Theodore Simon
 Partnered with Binet
 First IQ Test
Measuring Intelligence
 Intelligence
 Stanford-Binet  Weschler Adult
Intelligence Scale
Measuring Intelligence
 Standardized  Normed  Flynn Effect
Types of Intelligence
Carroll’s Model
 Fluid
 Crystallized
Types of Intelligence
Gardner’s Theory: Multiple Intelligence
Logic-math Visual-spatial Music-rhythm Verbal-linguistic
Bodily-kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic
Types of Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
Types of Intelligence
Mind Set > Intellectual Abilities
Correlates of Intelligence
 Genetics
 Positive attitude
 Gender differences?
 Unequal representation
 Stereotype threat
 Bias
Correlates of Intelligence
Who’s smarter?
Correlates of Intelligence
 Fine Motor Skill
 Acquired Knowledge
 Reading Comprehension
 Decoding Non-verbal
 Grades
 Fluid reasoning related
to math/science
 Perceptual tasks (e.g.,
moving objects)
 Transformations in
working memory
 Theories continue to develop
 Different types
 Several influences
Image Credits
Slide 1
Photo Credit: Leo Reynolds https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4834775256
Slide 9 Photo Credit: Cliff https://www.flickr.com/photos/nostri-imago/3007483608/ https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
Slide 11 Photo Credit: commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alfred_Binet.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/public_domain
Slide 11 Photo Credit: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Francis_Galton_1850s.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/public_domain
Slide 17
Photo Credit: http://pixabay.com/en/splashing-splash-aqua-water-rain-165192/
Slide 17
Photo Credit: Stux. http://pixabay.com/en/amethyst-violet-purple-quartz-265347/
Slide 18
Photo Credit: Flicktone https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/7569399410/
Slide 18
Photo Credit: liza31337 https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/2944362379/
Slide 18
Photo Credit: Ken Douglas https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/28694554/
Slide 18
Photo Credit: jshj https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4355074074/
Slide 18
Photo Credit: remuz [Jack The Ripper] https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4126836079/
Slide 18
Photo Credit: shutterpal https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4510391208/
Slide 18
hoto Credit: rnoblin https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4842547348/
Slide 18
Photo Credit: Andrea Allen https://www.flickr.com/photos/sloth_rider/392367929/
Slide 20
Photo Credit: Malabooboo https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4684033361/
Slide 22
Photo Credit: Argonne National Laboratory https://www.flickr.com/photos/argonne/8679030104/
Slide 23
Photo Credit: Chris Bailey Photographer https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/8701156043/
Slide 23
Photo Credit: Fotasca https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/8933418127/
Slide 25
Photo Credit: daryllsy https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4312909937/

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper