The absorptive state, also known as the feasting state, occurs after food digestion and absorption. The digestion of food starts from the mouth and ends in the intestine by breaking down into smaller constituents for absorption through the intestine.
Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are broken down and assimilated across the gastrointestinal tract, entering the circulation or the lymphatic system (fats).
These systems are transported from the intestine to the liver, adipose tissues, muscle cells, processed, used, and stored.
The absorptive condition might last up to 4 hours, based on the quantity and kind of food consumed.
Food consumption and increase in blood glucose concentrations encourage pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin into the blood.
Now the absorption of glucose from the blood takes place in liver hepatocytes and adipose and muscle cells.
When glucose enters these cells, it is rapidly transformed into glucose-6-phosphate.
Creates a concentration gradient through which higher glucose levels in the blood as compared to the cells.
It provides a passage for the glucose to stream from blood to any cells.
In addition, insulin promotes glycogen storage in the liver and muscle cells, utilized for the body’s future energy demands. Insulin also stimulates the synthesis of protein.
If energy is expended soon after eating, dietary fats and carbohydrates are consumed immediately and digested, also utilized for energy.
Metabolism During Postabsorptive State (Fasting)
After food has been digested, absorbed, and stored, the body enters the postabsorptive stage, often known as fasting.
Fasting overnight is common, but missing meals for the whole day puts the body in a postabsorptive condition.
In this condition, the body is dependent on glycogen stored in the muscle cells. As the glucose is absorbed and utilized by the cells, the level of glucose starts falling. Insulin levels also fall with a reduction in glucose levels.
The storage of glycogen and triglycerides in the body also reduces. Blood glucose levels should be in the normal range of 80â€“120 milligrams per deciliters (mg/dL) due to the needs of the tissues and organs.
The pancreatic alpha cells produce the hormone glucagon in response to a reduction in the blood glucose content.
Glucagon works on liver cells, inhibiting glycogen production and stimulating the breakdown of the glycogen stored in the liver back to the glucose.
The liver releases this glucose utilized by the brain and peripheral nervous tissues. Blood glucose levels begin to rise as a result.
Glucose is predominantly absorbed by distal tissues. In addition, gluconeogenesis will commence in the liver to replenish the glucose consumed by the peripheral tissues. Fasting stays for an extended period, and the liver will not process and utilize the glucose in the same manner.
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