Combustion is a chemical reaction where fuel combines with oxygen with the release of an enormous amount of energy that increases the temperature of gases. Combustion occurs in internal combustion engines or industrial furnaces i.e., in a controlled mode. In the internal combustion engine, due to the combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel with air, the energy is obtained that converts the chemical energy of the fuel to internal energy in the gases with the engine. This chemical energy of the fuel is released more when it reacts with a stoichiometric amount of oxygen. In a stoichiometric reaction, only carbon dioxide and water are obtained as products. The ratio of air to fuel whether it’s a solid, liquid or gaseous fuel present in a combustion process, then called an air-fuel mixture. To completely burn the fuel, if sufficient air is provided, then this mixture is called a stoichiometric mixture. An appropriate amount of fuel and air is required for combustion to take place. An air-fuel mixture with an excess amount of fuel is called a rich mixture and the combustion is rich combustion, while one with an excess amount of air is called lean mixture and the combustion is lean combustion. And the air-fuel mixture decides the amount of pollutants and energy is released in the reaction. The air-fuel ratio has a range outside this range and no ignition can occur.
The air-fuel mixture will have excessive fuel due to some of the following reasons. They are as follows,
Due to routine causes like a high load on the engine, intense cold weather, acceleration.
Because of damage in the electronic control unit (ECU) that is used in an internal combustion engine to guarantee the ideal engine performance.
Polluted air filter and poor airflow sensor.
Due to default in oxygen sensors.
Bad engine coolant temperature sensor.
Injectors inserted in the open position.
A cooling system with the removed thermostat and the fan running directly is also one of the reasons for rich combustion.
Advantages of Rich Mixture Combustion
Based on the air-fuel ratio, rich and lean mixtures are classified. In a rich mixture, air-fuel ratio is lower than the ideal ratio. To completely burn the fuel, it has inadequate air (oxygen). It raises fuel consumption and releases products of incompletely burned gasoline i.e., hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.
Rich combustion is required for starting at idling. Idling of an engine is the process of running the engine at low speed with the transmission detached. In idling, to balance the charge dilution caused by the exhaust gases from the combustion chamber-rich mixture is desirable. Because of the minute opening of the throttle, the admitted fresh charge quantity is less. There will be reduced contact between the fuel and air particles because of the exhaust gas dilution. It prevents efficient combustion. By use of the rich mixture, fuel and air contact are improved by giving efficient combustion in the idling environment.
A rich mixture is used for acceleration and high-load conditions. It avoids overheating of the cylinder head by producing cooler combustion products. Hence, it prevents detonation.
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