Wisconsin-Madison School of Pharmacy

Rennebohm Hall n University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Pharmacy
777 Highland Avenue n Madison, WI 53705-2222 n 608.262.5378 n [email protected]
This slide presentation was compiled and produced by Robert
McCarthy, Ph.D., Professor and Dean Emeritus at the University of
Connecticut School of Pharmacy for his class “The History of
American Pharmacy.” Prof. McCarthy created this version of the
slide talk for his class in the Spring of 2016.
This slide presentation was downloaded from the Teaching the
History of Pharmacy section of the website of the American Institute
of the History of Pharmacy (https://aihp.org/historicalresources/teaching-the-history-of-pharmacy/) where a copy of the
syllabus (.pdf) for Prof. McCarthy’s class is also available.
This .pdf copy of the slide presentation was shared with the permission
of Prof. Robert McCarthy for the personal and educational use of
interested readers.
PHRX 4001W-002
The History of American
Spring 2016
An American Pharmacopeia
• 1808: The Massachusetts Pharmacopoeia is published providing a
state guide to drug standards.
• The Massachusetts Pharmacopoeia was used by apothecaries to properly
fill prescriptions from physicians since it defined the identity of drugs and
• 1820: The U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention founded in Washington,
DC; although all state medical societies were invited to send
delegates, only 11 states attended; only about 200 drugs were
included in the first USP since they were the only ones deemed
“most fully established and best understood.”
United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)
• 1830: The first revision of the USP published; revisions continue at
an interval of every 10 years.
• 1848: Congress passes legislation making the USP an official
• 1888: First National Formulary (NF) published by the American
Pharmaceutical (now Pharmacists) Association.
• 1900: USP Convention and Board of Trustees created.
• 1906: USP and NF standards for strength, quality, and purity
recognized as official.

United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)
• 1938: USP and NF standards for strength, quality, purity, packaging, and
labeling recognized as official and enforced by FDA; “New Drug” concept
established; FDA approves drugs for safety before marketing.
• 1942: USP revision cycle changed to every 5 years.
• 1971: USP moves headquarters to Rockville, MD.
• 1975: USP acquires NF from APhA.
• 1977: USP and NF scope redefined: USP specifies standards for drug
substances and dosage forms; NF specifies standards for excipients.
• 1980: USP and NF published under same cover; USP Dispensing
Information (USP DI) published.
• 1993: Federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts (OBRA ’90 and ’93)
name USP DI as source of information that state Medicaid agencies can
use for drug utilization review, patient counseling, and medically accepted
off-label uses of medicines.
United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)
• 1994: USP signs an agreement with the American Medical
Association to combine the information in AMA’s Drug Evaluations
database with the USP DI database to develop a single product that
contains drug and therapeutic information.
• 2002: USP-NF published annually.
• 2000s: USP develops offices/laboratories around the world and
collaborates with the pharmacopoeias of other nations in
developing drug standards.
Source: USP Web Site
National Formulary
• 1883: NY Pharmacist Samuel Bendiner and NY hospital pharmacist
Charles Rice led an effort to modernize the US Pharmacopoeia;
Bendiner inspired the creation of the New York and Brooklyn
Formulary (NYBF); Rice negotiated an agreement to share the
information in the NYBF to develop a national formulary, which it
was hoped would be used by physicians in prescribing rather than
recommending the use of proprietary medicines.
• 1886: APhA published a preliminary draft of the National Formulary
of Unofficinal Preparations, asking for feedback from the pharmacy
• 1888: The National Formulary (NF) is published for the first time by
• 1906: The second revision of the NF coincides with the passage of
the Food & Drug Act, which named the NF as one of the official
standards for pharmaceuticals, much to the surprise of APhA.

National Formulary (NF)
• The first three editions of the NF provided practicing pharmacists with
formulas for small scale compounding, allowing for competition with
ready-made preparations.
• 1916: National Formulary IV set “definite standards.”
• 1935: The NF established a drug standards lab at the University of Illinois
College of Pharmacy.
• 1938: APhA established the Drug Standards Laboratory in Washington,
DC.; during the 1960s, this lab was revitalized through financial support
from USP (which was using this lab’s services) and the AMA.
• In 1960, there were discussion of merging the NF and USP; by 1966, formal
discussion of a merger was underway.
• 1975: USP purchased both the NF and Drug Standards Laboratory from
• 1998: USP licensed USP DI to The Thomson Company; USP DI is published
by their Micromedex subsidiary.

USP Today
• “USP is a unique organization whose activities are directed by three governing
bodies composed of more than 900 volunteers and whose day-to-day operations
are managed by an executive team and staff of more than 800 employees.”
• “Governance: USP is governed by the Convention membership, the Board of
Trustees, and the Council of Experts and its Expert Committees. These decisionmaking bodies guide USP’s activities in the best interest of quality public health.”
• “Executive Team: USP’s executive team helps manage all USP operations at its
five international locations in support of the governing bodies’ standards-setting
activities. USP staff provide support for volunteer and member activities, scientific
testing, quality assurance, standards acquisition, verification services, training in
developing regions, education programs, customer service, harmonization, and
outreach and communications efforts.”
Source: USP Web Site.
The United States Pharmacopeia and
the National Formulary (USP–NF)
Food Chemicals Codex
USP Dietary Supplements
USP Medicines Compendium (MC)
Reference Standards
Other Resources
– Pharmacopeial Forum
– FCC Forum
– USP Dictionary
– Chromatographic Columns
USP’s Compendial Activities
USP Today
USP Today
• United States Pharmacopeia 38 – National Formulary 33
• Published November 1, 2014; official May 1, 2015
• Supplement 1 to the United States Pharmacopeia 38 – National Formulary 33
• Published February 1, 2015; official August 1, 2015
• Supplement 2 to the United States Pharmacopeia 38 – National Formulary 33
• Published June 1, 2015; official December 1, 2015

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper